Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The Big Short Essay SamplesBefore you begin writing a big short essay, make sure you're aware of what you want to accomplish with your writing. You can use the big short essay samples to help you get started.Big short essay samples to help you get started on your writing for your assignment. It is important that you remember that this is your assignment, and you have to give it your best effort. And no matter how much practice you have in writing, there is always room for improvement.One way to keep things fresh is to write something that you find yourself doing repeatedly. This could be something simple such as a recipe. Or it could be something unique to you, such as your knowledge of football history.When you're starting out with your assignment, be sure to start with a simple sentence structure. Since you'll be working on the big short essay samples with a full assignment, it's important that you have to make the simplest sentence structure possible. Be sure to use a standard for mat when submitting your work for the assignment.The big short essay samples will help you with your research, which will include where to find information about things that will help you with your writing. Remember that the essay is not a one-page paper, but a whole document, so don't just start with the essay and move on to the rest of the assignment. Make sure you follow the essay samples and complete your research first.Keep in mind that the essay samples are there to serve as suggestions. You do not have to follow everything they recommend. In fact, you shouldn't. Don't copy them word for word, but instead, find ways to incorporate the ideas into your own work.The big short essay samples can really help you create your own style and be able to get the most out of your writing. You may find that you're writing is different than you were before. Of course, this is normal, so make sure that you understand what the big short essay samples are doing for you, and then implement them into your own writing.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Even though most people only know of the famous Brown v. Board of Education case, many other cases also took a major part in overturning the harsh laws that African Americans faced for a long period of time in this country. Brown v. Board of Education was the most important Supreme Court decision of the 20th century (National Park). Without this case, the education system and other segregated facilities might not have ever changed through the course of history (Kirk). Not only was this one person fighting the Board of Education, but it consisted of multiple cases put together to take to the Supreme Court. This shows that lots of people had the same feeling towards the subject at hand. These various cases and the people involved in eachÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In fact, this case was actually made up of five different cases that surrounded the same topic with black children wanting to attend a white school. They came from the states of Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delawa re. The court cases involved many famous names known today, such as Thurgood Marshall and Chief Justice Earl Warren (Supreme Court). Earl Warren gave the opinion that even though the cases came from different locations, they all had the same legal question to put into consideration. Before going to the Supreme Court, the five cases were ruled in favor of the school boards by a U.S. District Court with a three judge panel. The case presented in front of the Supreme Court raised questions about legal issues, but the most common one was that separate school systems were unequal and violated the constitution (Administrative Office). At this level in the court system, many justices realized they did not know which way to go in the case. Surprisingly, most wanted to overturn Plessy and claim that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional (Administrative Offices). In the end, Earl Warren was able to get all the justices to agree on one outcome of the case in 1953. By a unanimous v ote, Plessy was overturned and declared that segregation in public schools was against the constitutionShow MoreRelatedBrown Vs. Board Of Education1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBrown vs. Board of Education (1954) was a landmark Supreme Court Case that overturned the separate but equal ideology established by the earlier Supreme Court Case Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896). The Plessy vs. Ferguson court case had a profound affect on the social interaction of racial groups in the late 19th to early 20th century causing tension between the two most prominent races within the United States, the Caucasians and the African Americans, which included Hispanics and other non-white citizensRead MoreBrown Vs. Board Of Public Schools1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBrown vs Board Tess Gerczak Baker College Brown vs Board Neither the atom bomb nor the hydrogen bomb will ever be as meaningful to our democracy as the unanimous declaration of the Supreme Court that racial segregation violates the spirit and the letter of our Constitution. Ã¢â¬Å"On May 17 1954 the court unanimously ruled that separate but equal violated the Equal Protection Clause. Even though undefined the brown vs board of education caused the desegregation of public schools. Led toRead MoreBrown vs. Board of Education Essay1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBrown vs. Board of Education Ever since the founding of the United States of America, blacks have continuously been considered inferior to the white race. In the year of 1954, a substantial advancement in the fight for equality for blacks was prevalent. Countless prominent leaders of the United States realized the injustices that the blacks were forced to endure daily. Stated blatantly in the Declaration of Independence, it is said that all men are created equally. Disregarding the opinions of theRead MoreBrown vs. Board of Education Essay1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBrown v. Board of Education The case of brown v. board of education was one of the biggest turning points for African Americans to becoming accepted into white society at the time. Brown vs. Board of education to this day remains one of, if not the most important cases that African Americans have brought to the surface for the better of the United States. Brown v. Board of Education was not simply about children and education (Silent Covenants pg 11); it was about being equal in a society thatRead MoreWhite Vs. Board Of Education Essay1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages There are many cases in history that have a racial element like segregation to it. One of the most important, influential, and more well known court cases that dealt with segregation was Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka. It is commonly understood that Brown vs Board of Education dealt with a little girl suing because she wanted to attend an all white school in her neighborhood. In reality, the case was far more complex than that. In December, 1952 , the U.S. Supreme Court had on its docket casesRead MoreThe Chicago Public School System1226 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Chicago Public School system was slow to integrate even after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954. It took much protesting, federal involvement and public outrage to finally bring about more racial equality for the students of Chicago. While the Brown v. Board of Education ruling is thought of as being the reason any racial equality was brought to schools after such long hardships for the African American students, Chicago had a difficult time bringing the ruling to fruition and federalRead MoreBrown Vs. Board of Education Essay554 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescases which have altered the history of countries Brown vs. Board of Education stands. Like anything pivotal there are many elements involved within the issue, background, and the impact of the decision. In Brown Vs. Board of Education there are three main points involved which made it so pivotal, the issue with which it was based, the historical background, and the after affect it had on the south . Before 1954 most public school systems in the south- and some in the north as well-were raciallyRead MoreBrown V. The Board Of Education1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBrown v. The Board of Education Topeka, Kansas, 1950, a young African-American girl named Linda Brown had to walk a mile to get to her school, crossing a railroad switchyard. She lived seven blocks from an all white school. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Oliver, tried to enroll her into the all white school. The school denied her because of the color of her skin. Segregation was widespread throughout our nation. Blacks believed that the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ saying was false. They felt that whites had more educationalRead MoreBrown Vs. Board Of Education878 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Brown vs. Board of Education Is our nation becoming segregated again in light of the recent current events? When you turned on your television last week, did you get a sense of remorse for both the black community as well as the law enforcement community? Our nation is facing many obstacles today regarding equal rights for all. Recently, I have read an essay released in a magazine called, The American School Board Journal, titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Ruling that Changed AmericaÃ¢â¬ by Juan Williams which he alsoRead MoreAnalysis Of Elizabeth And Hazel, Parts Of The Town892 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto better schools and got better paying jobs while Black people continued to suffer. Black people ended up being stuck in a cycle of an unofficial caste system. This Ã¢â¬Å"caste systemÃ¢â¬ based on socio-economic racism has evolved and still exists today. The socioeconomic divide exists to this day. In the American Life Podcast, the school Michael Brown went to at Normandy, one of the poorest cities in Missouri, has a large population of lower income Black people. In January of 2013, Normandy lost its accreditation
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Human rights are universal, as they apply to all human beings without discrimination. They should be enforced in the same way in every country; inconsistent recognition, interpretation and application of human rights undermine their universality. Therefore, there should be a single international system for the protection of human rights, and their enforcement should be guaranteed by an independent international tribunal, whose decisions should be binding on all countries. Critically discuss this statement, examining the multilevel system of protection of human rights and the issues arising from the coexistence of international instruments that guarantee different standards of protection? Answer: Introduction Human rights literally are the rights of a human. There are various factors that shape up the moral rights of human being. Human rights signify equal rights for everyone. The rights of a human being are inalienable (Ife, 2014). The rights of the human beings are universal in nature. The members of the human species i.e. Homo sapiens are the holders of the same human rights. The political implications as well as the universal rights of the human beings are explored in the paper. The human rights discussed in this essay are not only the abstract values. The rights include the social practices for the realization of the values. Thus the human rights should not be confused with the other values or the aspirations that underlie the rights or it is not related to the enjoyment of the right (De Mesquita et al., 2005). For example the protection against arbitrary execution is considered as a human right internationally. However the inability of the people to execute themselves arbitrarily ma y reflect the lack of desire of the government. Human rights are considered as a moral right of the individual of the highest order. The human rights are a matter of discussion at the international level. However the human rights are considered as the ordinary legal rights in the national legal system (Schibel, 2003). There are various local jurisdictions that also contain statutes for human rights. For example, racial discrimination at work place is subjected to legal protection that is available on several grounds. On the terms of the employment, a grievance is enough to start a legal action on the basis of the contract. The rights provide an intermediate stage between the national law and the international law. An appeal to the human rights shows that there is absence of legal rights that can be enforced in a positive manner. For example, the homosexuals in United States have claimed against the discrimination towards them. But the appeal of the homosexuals has failed as the cons titutional prohibitions of discriminations are not applicable for any kind of sexual orientation. Thus the claims of the human rights are self liquidating in nature (DOÃ ¾AN, 2004). The claims of human rights challenge and change the existing institutions, norms and practices especially the legal practices that are associated with the human rights. The legal right often tries to establish a lower right. For example the claims of the human rights in the health care services in United States aim at the creation of legal right to health care. The claims are seen to be politically effective but the need to make them effective will be reduced in future (Shoenberger, 2007). The human rights will be eliminated by the ordinary legal rights. Human rights are not only expression of aspirations, suggestions or requests; they are rights based demand for bringing a change. Human rights are not limited to being legal rights. The legal rights provide protection to the already established legal en tities. But the grounds of the human rights are supra legal claims. Thus the human rights are not weaker or stronger than any other kind of right but they are different rights (Helfer, n.d.). Human rights are Universal In the year 1993, there was initiation of Universal Human Rights. This was adopted after the adoption of the Vienna Declaration and Various Programs for action at the World Conference on Human rights. At the conference in Vienna it was declared that the human rights are considered to be universal in nature, interrelated, interdependent and indivisible in nature. Thus the international community should treat the rights of the human beings with fairness and equality (Dunne and Wheeler, 1999). The States bear the duty to promote the equality and the protection of the human rights as a part of freedom which is the fundamental right regardless of the economic, cultural and political systems. In the chapter of Human Environmental Rights by Barbara Johnson a completely separate type of intersection between the local and the international force for the implementation of human rights have been highlighted. According to Barbara Johnson, the environmental issues around the world with the ramifi cations of the human rights have led to several social movements. This has resulted in the increase in role in the politics of human rights (Brownlie, Goodwin-Gill and Brownlie, 2010). The environmental issues have led to the rise of demand for respect of the rights of the human beings. The awareness of the people is increasing and they are turning to be more organized. The social movements have led to the conversion of the environmental issues as political agendas and they are indirectly providing rights for the participation in politics (Addo, 2010). The concept of human rights comprise of a part of the intellectual patrimony of the human kind. With the development of civilizations, the concept of liberty, equality, law, dignity and freedom has developed over time (Pogge, 2003). The declaration of the Universality of Human rights drew from the intellectual well spring of Asia, Africa, Europe and America in 1948. The concept of universality of the human rights is compatible with the cultural diversity (Donnelly, 2007). The freedom and right of the individuals face certain limitations that are determined by law (Steiner, Goodman and Alston, 2015). Universality is consistent with the cultural diversity The universal right of human beings is associated with the diversity in culture. The article 27 of the International Covenant on Human Rights provides evidence that the human rights are associated with cultural diversity (Tengns, 2012). It is stated in the article that people with religious, linguistic or ethnic minorities must not be denied of their rights in the community in which they reside. They will have the liberty to practice their own religion and culture and they must use their own language (Humanrights.gov.au, 2015).The International Labor Organizations Committee of Experts on the Application of Convention and Recommendations laid down the doctrine for the application of the international standards in the basis of the national conditions. They adopted a national law and practice against the conventions of International labor policies (Freeman, 2002). The guideline laid down by the Committee has to be universal and they are uniform for all countries (Addo, 2010). The universality of the human rights was affected by cultural diversity. For example, the Asian countries are authoritarian and paternalistic in nature. Thus the rules of the Government are paternalistic and authoritarian. The developing nations have to sacrifice their freedom temporarily for the achievement of economic development. The Asian populations are increasing with the rise in demand and exploding populations (Koskenniemi, 2007). Thus it was not possible to exercise the equality of human rights in the Asian countries. It was earlier stated that human rights was a Western concept. But examples has been cited which show that people has fought for their human rights in Asian countries (Simmons, 2006). The non cooperation movement in India against the British Government in the colonial India is an example of fight against the human rights in Asia. The human rights in the reason have formed as a basis for the struggle against the authoritarian regimes and the military rule in the country. The mass movement that occurred in India was an expression of the strength and sustenance that resulted from awareness of human rights. The movement empowered the people of the SAARC region. Thus it can be said that the human rights has been universal for the people in Asia. In the year 1948, after the agony of the World War, the world had appeared to be a dark place filled with desperate survivors. The world was gripped with pessimism. At this crucial point, the Universal declaration of the human rights acted as a tonic (Douzinas, 2001). The declaration of human rights as universal right offered the war monger, devastated mankind a humanity vision. It provided a free and fraternal future. Single International system for the protection of human rights The protection of the rights of the human beings has been promoted by the International Human Rights Law. This is done at the domestic level and regional level. The international law is a conglomeration of the agreements, treaties between the states that enforce a legislative framework among the parties. The party has agreed to the International law for consistent conduct of the states with the belief that the states are required to take actions in a particular way. The enforcement of the laws of human rights takes place at the domestic level and the regional level (Foot, 2004). The relationship between the international law of human rights and the humanitarian law has disputes among the law scholars at the international level. A systemic view of the International law on human rights explains that the general norms of the law has application for everyone and it is applicable for selected group of people which includes the people belonging to the armed and military occupants or a group of people that comprise the refugees. The human rights laws must cover the children and the prisoners of war (McCartin, 2012). The organizations of the primitive society were based on communalism. But distribution of power was seen with the emergence of the states. The power distribution was on the basis of law. With distribution of power there was the growth of rights which led to the development of the human rights law (Casassas, Ravents and Wark, 2010). The duties borne by the state with respect to the individual persons has dependence on protection of the right of the individual. They are entitled for claiming against any kind of violation of the rights. Aftermath the World War II, the international consensus has realized the need to identify the rights of the individual and liberties which has to be respected by the Government of all countries. The Government has to implement mechanisms for the promotion of the States so that they adhere to the obligations of human rights. The serious breaches in the human rights have to be addressed. Thus the Government has established unified system to protect the human rights. It led to the development of United Nations, Council of Europe and Organization of American States for the advancement of human rights (Weston, 2006). The intergovernmental organizations prepared declaration and treaties that led to providing specific liberties to the human rights which includes the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom and American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (Weston, 2006). At the end of 1950, the developed countries had established a unified system for the protection and the promotion of human rights. The developed countries i.e. Europe, America and United Nations worked in collaboration with one another for the protection of rights of human being. Recently there has been development of regional human rights treaties and mechanism of monitoring. This was established by the intergovernmental organizations. It led to the development of mechanism for so that the human rights principles can be established in the developing nations. Africa came forward for the protection of the human rights of the people in their country. This was possible as a result of the alliance between African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights and the African Court on Human and People Rights along with the compliance with African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Slaughter, 2006). There is need to protect human rights. It was recognized with the decline of Soviet Union. This led to the formation of Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. They realized that the recognition of human rights was necessary for maintaining the political and military relations, development of the economy. This was necessary for stability and peace in Europe and the Soviet States. The protection of human rights had spread to Asia with the establishment of ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights. In 2009, Arab States led to the creation of the committee of Arab Human Rights. The UN, African system and the Inter-American system had appointed individual experts for monitoring the conditions of human rights so that the priority areas can be identifies. The priority areas include the human rights issues related to discrimination and detention. The experts that identify the priority areas are known as rapporteurs. They gather information from the civil society and report the conditions of human rights so that laws could be taken to comply with the international laws. The laws that govern human rights receive coordination from the European Commission and the UN High Commissioner. They take decisions on the basis of dialogue with the stakeholders and statements of the public. International Courts and Monitoring Bodies for Protection of Human Rights Apart from the Government there are various international bodies that are working together for the addressing the violation on the human rights. It is known as the international human rights framework. The international governmental bodies have given the states liberty to complain against the other states. They can present the complaint in front of the International court of Justice to resolve the allegation on violation of the terms of the international agreement. The compliance of the States to the international labor standards is monitored by the International Labor Organization. This includes acceptance of the interstate complaints that are related to the violation of the allegations of the ILO conventions. The disputes related to the human rights are adjudicated by the economic integration or the development agreements that has been created by the regional courts in the countries. The courts have been operating in the sub regions in Europe, America and Africa (International Justice Resource Center, 2011). In the year 1993, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Vienna Declaration Program Action (Alves, 2000). The program provided a universal platform so that the basic rights of human being can be applied across the globe. For this purpose it was important to enforce the laws on human rights , United Nations Commission on Human Rights was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council. The international law of rights of human beings provides an evidence of the customary international law. The law does not create binding for the international law of human rights. The international human rights laws are bound by various instruments of the international human rights (Reichert, 2006). Monitoring, implementation and enforcement of the Human right laws The international law on human rights is not monitored on a regular basis by any International court but there is existence of quasi-judicial bodies of UN for monitoring the International human rights laws. The quasi-judicial body has the jurisdiction over crime against wars and against humanity. The human right laws are governed mostly by the European court of Human Rights and the Inter American Court of Human Rights (Nlke, 1996). The cases related to the international humanitarian law are governed by same international bodies. The legal regimes regarding the human rights are recognized by the framework that constitutes the various regimes of the human rights. The complaints and issues regarding the human rights are handled by the United Nations. They periodically review the issues related to rights of the human beings. The enforcement of the laws for the rights of the human beings is the prima facie responsibility of the states of the nation. They bear the responsibility to make the rights of the human being of the citizen as a reality. It is difficult to give a legal enforcement to the human rights issues. There is lack of consensus on the application of the human rights. Thus there is scarcity of relevant national legislations that take legal actions to enforce the human rights equally on every individual. The national human rights institution (NHRIs) is set up in more than 110 countries. They monitor and provide protection to promote the rights of the human beings for the jurisdiction of the given country. The principles that govern the NHRIs are not compliant with the Paris principles but there is increase in the number and effect of the institution. The Paris Principles was the first workshop that was held internationally on the National Institutions to protect and promote the human rights. This was adopted by the commission for exercising the rights of the human beings and the general assembly. There is a list of responsibilities that has been cited by the Paris Principles (Forsythe, 2008). Universal Jurisdiction One of the major controversial principles of International law is the Universal jurisdiction. Under this law, criminal jurisdiction is claimed against the states over the persons who are held responsible for the criminal activity (Jalloh, 2010). The prosecution takes place against the individuals despite of the nationality of the individual, state of prosecution or the country of origin. In the year 1993, the law of universal jurisdiction was passed over crimes against humanity. The application of the universal jurisdiction is evident from the arrest of Augusto Pinochet (dictator of Chile in between 1973 to 1990, Commander of Chief of the Chilean army) in London for the violation of the rules on human rights (O'Keefe, 2004). The principle laid down by the Universal Jurisdiction has support from the Amnesty International and the other organizations promoting rights of the human beings. They are against the crimes that pose severe threat on the community and thus they bear a moral duty to act against the crime (Universal jurisdiction, 2008). National Human Rights Institution The International laws on Human Rights has led to the development of the National human rights institutions that has led to the creation of the domestic and regional laws that has close resemblance with the international system for rights of human beings. The national human rights institution was set up in the late 1970s and the 1980s. The development of the NHRIs can be traced from the conference from Vienna on the Human Rights that endorsed the principles of human rights on strong and larger framework (Pegram, n.d.). The national institutions have played a major role to protect the human rights. They have authorities that are competent enough for the development or principles for the protection of the human rights. The World Conference on Human Rights led to the development of the national institutions based on their principles of the human rights so that the right of every citizen is preserved. Strict action must be taken for the violation of the legal obligations on human rights. The first resolution in NHRIs was adopted in the year 2011 by the Human Rights Council for the unanimous support and sponsorship. Resolutions has been taken in the General assembly at the end of 2011 for the strengthening the NHRIs. Recommendations have been provided for the development of the national bodies on human rights (Guilhot, 2005). Multilevel system for the protection of human rights The universal recognition of the human rights at the regional and worldwide level requires the adoption of new culture of human rights. It also requires a people oriented regional and international framework that is different from the concepts developed at the level of the state. The multilevel system to protect the human rights has been developed in Europe and it has led to the development of multi level constitutionalism. This has led to the creation of divided power system which has succeeded in overcoming the history in Europe of periodic wars (Princen and Kerremans, 2008). The National constitutional law and the human rights will not be able to achieve the objectives is they are not supplemented by the international law according to the constitution. It is important for the creation of multilevel system for the protection of the human rights. It is not only the role of the regional and the international laws on human rights to promote and protect the human rights. The laws governed by the UN, WTO and the EU serves as the functions for protection of the non discrimination, freedom, rule of the law and the social welfare across the national frontiers. It has been proved via historical experience that without the multilateral rules, it is not possible for the national parliaments to function properly. The multilateral rules govern the foreign policies. It is ensured by the multilateral laws that the decisions related to the foreign policies are taken with respect to the human rights and the law us applicable not only in the home country but across the frontiers. The integration of the European and the global laws shows the different layers of the constitutional rules at national and the international level that has to be supplemented by the judicial process. It is supplemented by the democratic controls and the constitutiona l safeguards (Trachtman, 2006). It has been described by Kant (at least 200 years ago) that the democracy and human rights requires laws and constitutions that protect it nationally as well as internationally. The power of the Government at the National and the International level are derived from the democratic legitimacy at various levels by the government and from the democratic participation of the citizen. According to the framework of human rights by EU, it is stated that the citizen should be considered as legal bodies of the law and the organization. The democratic participation of the individuals requires the democratic participation of the members. For example, the formation of the European Central Bank has been rightly interpreted by the German Constitutional Court as an act which provides guarantee of the private property i.e. money which is receives protection by the German constitution as the basic right. With this context the IMF was established as a monetary agreement that will focus on the rights a nd obligations of the Government with respect to the monetary policy. This will occur without any kind of legal implication of the human right obligations of the government and the UN agencies. The law related to human rights must require the delegation from the regulatory powers in the national, regional and the worldwide organizations. In the 21st century, the biggest legal challenge of the law and the governance is concerned with protection of the dignity of human beings and sovereignty of the individuals. The integration is required at the national as well as the international level (Heyns and Srinivasan, 2013). Issues as a result of different standards of human rights The standards for the right of the human beings are different for different countries. There is existence of several supranational human right bodies that protect the human rights. The lack of uniformity of the human rights laws across the nations lead to the issues related to human rights. In Western Hemisphere, the 35 independent countries are the members of Organization of America States that has been signed by the American Declaration of Rights and Duties of Man. The various bodies of human rights operate in an independent manner. Each governing body has specific mandates that lie within the scope of the particular treaties. It is seen that the provisions of the regional and the universal human rights are often considered to be very similar in nature. There are various human right bodies that operate in an independent manner (Hughes, 2011).The human rights extend from the common rights of the people to their political rights and the financial rights. The Human Development Report 2000 focuses on United Nations attention to human right principles amidst Cold War which is seen to be rich in the western countries for the basic fundamental political rights of the people. It is more than 50 years that the United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights was set up by the government on the planet but there is growth in the misuses (Moyn, 2014). The right to speak freely and Human Rights are underestimated in the West but yet late years have seen conditions fall apart around the globe. In the year 1997 for instance, Human Rights conditions were accounted for to stay unaltered contrasted with earlier years, or in a few nations, really exacerbate, as far and wide as possible. In 1998 for instance, the UN reported that despite the fact that over a hundred administrations had consented to help prohibit a portion of the more terrible infringement of rights, torment was still on the increment. There is war on dread activated by terrorist which assaults in the United States on September 11, 2001, the circumstance for right for human beings appears to have decayed, with terrorists conferring human rights infringement, as well as intense governments who are relinquishing rights for security. Amnesty International unequivocally denounced furnished gatherings in charge of monstrosities representing a huge new danger to universal equity. According to Irene Khan (Secretary General of Amnesty International), it is additionally terrifying that the standards of global law and the apparatuses of multilateral activity which could shield us from these assaults are being undermined, underestimated or decimated by effective governments. Governments are losing their ethical compass, giving up the worldwide estimations of human rights in a visually impaired quest for security. This disappointment of administration is a hazardous admission to furnished gatherings. The "war on dread" and the war in Iraq has energized another wave of human rights misuse and redirected consideration from old ones.There are such a variety of illustrations of different nations, organizations and foundations abusing human rights. Some are adding to smothering rights in different nations. Others are disregarding the situation of individuals in different nations whose rights are denied because they could call their own financial and political hobbies in those different nations. There are such a large number of misuses that it would take too long to specify here. Notwithstanding, a couple that do strike a chord that have even made it into the standard media (albeit not generally precisely) incorporate those that are exhibited on this site. The connections to these can be seen underneath. Over the long haul more will be solved. The number of nations at danger for human rights infringement has expanded lately. In 2014 Human Rights Risk Atlas, worldwide investigation firm Maple croft uncovered that in the previous six years, the quantity of nations with a "great danger" of human rights offenses has risen significantly. Assessing 197 nations on different human rights infringement, Maple croft characterized 20 nations as having a great human rights hazard in 2008. That number has following ascended to 34. Of the nations with a high danger of infringement, Syria, Egypt, Libya, Mali and Guinea-Bissau have seen the most exceedingly bad disintegration of their human rights circumstance, as per the report. Topographically countries in the Middle East and North Africa represent the larger part of the nations in the "great danger" classification. With state suppression of challenges and broad clash, Syria positions most elevated among the nations assessed. A few nations in sub-Saharan Africa likewise made the rundown of the main 10 most exceedingly awful guilty parties, basically for progressing ethnic clashes and sexual viciousness. Nonetheless, state suppression and brutality are a long way from the main boosts for human rights infringement. In nations with developing economies, for instance, the potential for work-related offenses is developing. In these economies, specialist's rights keep on being traded off, country and indigenous groups face area snatches and constrained dislodging and abusive or degenerate governments cinch down on opportunity of interpretation to keep up their grasp on force and monetary control." The nations with a lower danger, Scandinavian countries, for example, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden round out the base of the rundown. The United States, with a "medium" danger of human rights offenses; positioned 139th among the 197 nations. The promoters of the human rights have revealed that even after 60 years of the declaration of Human Rights, it has remained as a fantasy than reality. Infringement has been noticed in all sphere of life. The youngsters and the ladies are not allowed to express their view point. There is no freedom of press in various nations. There has been few additions made in the human right laws in the span of six decades but the issues related to human rights torments the world even today. The articles related to Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) are as follows - The Right To Live Free It is seen that 6500 people have been slaughtered in 2007 as there was clash in Afghanistanalmost half of them being noncombatant, non military personnel passing on note of extremists. Several people have been likewise executed in the assaults by the gatherings. In 2007 in Brazil, as per authority figures, it is seen that the police slaughtered no less than 1,260 people the most noteworthy. All the episodes were authoritatively marked "reflections of resistance" and has practically no scrutiny. In Uganda, 1,500 people have passed the uprooted individual camps. As indicated by the World Health Organization, 500,000 have been dead in the camp. Vietnamese powers constrained not less than 75,000 addicts of medications and griefs into 71 highly populated "recovery" camps, which marked the prisoners at "high hazard" of contamination with HIV/AIDS however giving no treatment (Humanrights.com, 2015). No Slavery According to this article, no one will be held in subjugation or in bondage. Any kind of servitude and slave exchange must be denied in all possible ways. In the northern region Uganda, the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) guerrillas have hijacked 20,000 children in the course of recent years. The individuals were administered as sexual slaves to the armed forces. In Guinea-Bissau, youngsters as youthful as five years has been trafficked out of the nation to work in the cotton fields in southern Senegal or as being homeless people in the capital city. In Ghana, kids of the age of five to fourteen are deceived with bogus guarantees of instruction and future into hazardous, unpaid occupations in the angling business. Freedom To Move Everybody has the privilege to opportunity of development and living arrangement inside the fringes of every State. Everybody has the privilege to leave any nation, including his own, and to come back to his nation. A large number of residents have been confined in Myanmar. In Algeria, refugees and outcast seekers are in continuous casualties of detainment, removal or sick treatment. Twenty-eight people coming from the sub-Saharan African nations with the authority displaced the status from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) were ousted to Mali in the wake of being dishonestly attempted, without legitimate insight or mediators, on the charges of coming to Algeria in an illicit manner. They have been dumped close to the desert area where a Malian equipped gathering was dynamic, without any kind sustenance, water or therapeutic support. In Kenya, the universal rights of the people were displaced as a result of clash in Somalia. The shelter seekers confined themselves in the fringes in Kenya without any kind of charges or trial. They came back to Somalia persuasively (Humanrights.com, 2015). No Slavery Nobody should be held in any kind of prison or bondage; subjugation and the exchange of slaves might be disallowed in all the structures. In northern region of Uganda, the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) guerrillas has hijacked 20,000 kids in recent years and constrained they were administered as sexual slaves for the armed force. In Guinea-Bissau, youthful kids are the victim of trafficking on their way to work in the cotton fields in southern Senegal. Even the poor people in the city are seen to be the victim of trafficking. In Ghana, youngsters of the age group of five to fourteen are deceived and they are provided guarantee of instructions and future into perilous, unpaid occupations for the prosper of their business. In Asia, Japan is a prominent destination for the trafficked ladies and the ladies coming from Thailand or Philippines are trafficked. It has been gauged by UNICEF that around 60,000 kids has been trafficked so far. The US State Department has estimated that 600,000 to 820,000 men, ladies and the youngsters are trafficked crosswise over universal outskirts every year. A large portion of the trafficked individuals are minors which includes a large number of ladies and young ladies escaping from Iraq. In almost all nations, including Canada, US and UK, expulsion or badgering are considered as the standard legislative reactions, with no help administrations for the victimized people (Humanrights.com, 2015). Freedom Of Expression Everyone has the liberty to be flexible to the assessment and the interpretation. The privilege incorporates any kind of opportunity so that the sentiments of the people can be held without any kind of hindrance so that the liberty of human beings can be reflected. In Sudan there are various rules preserving human rights and the safeguards the people of the region. There is national brain power controlling the mind and the security of the people. It is seen that in Ethiopia, two conspicuous cases of human right safeguards were sentenced on the basis of false charges in three years of jail. In Somalia, it is seen that a conspicuous safeguard on human rights has been killed on the basis of false charges. In the year 2007, the Press Act of 2004 was used as a measure for controlling the daily papers and thus the freedom of expression of the media and the press was controlled. In the year 2000, the homicide of the 17 writers was a result of reproachment of the government strategies and the strategies that has remained unsolved. It is stated by the US State Department that the ladies and the young people are trafficked across the country. As a result most of the young ladies are seen to escape from Iraq (Humanrights.com, 2015). Right To Democracy Everyone must have the right to take part in the legislation of the nation and it must take place through openly picked agents. Everybody has the right to get equivalent access to open administration in his nation. The right of the individual is based on the liberty given by the Government. The right will be communicated by the Government and there must be free voting methodology. In Zimbabwe, there are several guards of human rights that restrict people from participation in various activities. Thus there was the Movement for Democratic Change(MDC) so that the people can take part in the social occasions (Humanrights.com, 2015). Conclusion: Human rights issues has arose in the past and continuing presently.While 2014 saw fierce clash and the disappointment of numerous administrations to defend the rights and wellbeing of regular citizens, critical advancement was too seen in the protecting and securing of certain human rights. Key commemorations, including the remembrance of the Bhopal gas spill in 1984 and the Rwanda genocide in 1994, also as reflections on 30 years since the appropriation of the UN Convention against Torture, advised us that while jumps forward have been made, there is still work to be done to guarantee equity for victimized people and survivors of grave ill-uses. References: Addo, M. (2010). Practice of United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies in the Reconciliation of Cultural Diversity with Universal Respect for Human Rights.Human Rights Quarterly, 32(3), pp.601-664. Alves, J. (2000). The Declaration of Human Rights in Postmodernity.Human Rights Quarterly, 22(2), pp.478-500. Brownlie, I., Goodwin-Gill, G. and Brownlie, I. (2010).Brownlie's documents on human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Casassas, D., Ravents, D. and Wark, J. (2010). The Right to Existence in Developing Countries: Basic Income in East Timor.Basic Income Studies, 5(1). De Mesquita, B., Cherif, F., Downs, G. and Smith, A. (2005). Thinking Inside the Box: A Closer Look at Democracy and Human Rights.Int Studies Q, 49(3), pp.439-458. DOÃ ¾AN, Y. (2004). THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS JURISPRUDENCE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE PROTECTION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION LEGAL ORDER.Ankara Law Review, pp.053-081. Donnelly, J. (2007). The Relative Universality of Human Rights.Human Rights Quarterly, 29(2), pp.281-306. Douzinas, C. (2001). HUMAN RIGHTS, HUMANISM AND DESIRE.CANG, 6(3), pp.183-206. Dunne, T. and Wheeler, N. (1999).Human rights in global politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Foot, R. (2004). Chapter 2: The Place of Human Rights in US Foreign Policy.The Adelphi Papers, 44(363), pp.15-23. Forsythe, D. (2008). The United States and International Humanitarian Law.Journal of Human Rights, 7(1), pp.25-33. Freeman, M. (2002).Human rights. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Guilhot, N. (2005).The democracy makers. New York: Columbia University Press. Helfer, L. (n.d.). Human Rights and Intellectual Property: Conflict or Coexistence?.SSRN Journal. Heyns, C. and Srinivasan, S. (2013). Protecting the Right to Life of Journalists: The Need for a Higher Level of Engagement.Human Rights Quarterly, 35(2), pp.304-332. Hughes, G. (2011). THE CONCEPT OF DIGNITY IN THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS.Journal of Religious Ethics, 39(1), pp.1-24. Humanrights.com, (2015).Human Rights No Slavery: UN Universal Declaration Violations Abuse, Torture Slavery,. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/violations-of-human-rights/slavery-and-torture.html [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. Humanrights.com, (2015).United for Human Rights: Abuses Violation, Democracy Voting Freedom, UN Human Rights Declaration. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/violations-of-human-rights/democracy.html [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. Humanrights.com, (2015).United for Human Rights: Right to Exist, Humanitarian Groups, Universal UN Declaration. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/violations-of-human-rights/article-3.html [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. Humanrights.com, (2015).United for Human Rights: UN Universal Declaration, Abuse Violation of the Freedom of Expression. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/violations-of-human-rights/expression.html [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. Humanrights.com, (2015).United for Human Rights: Violation Abuses of the Universal UN Declaration, Freedom to Move Religion. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/violations-of-human-rights/freedom-to-move-and-thought.html [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. Humanrights.gov.au, (2015).Human rights issues raised by the third country processing regime | Australian Human Rights Commission. [online] Available at: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/rights-and-freedoms/publications/human-rights-issues-raised-third-country-processing-regime [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. Ife, J. (n.d.).Human Rights and Social Work. International Justice Resource Center, (2011).Overview of the Human Rights Framework. [online] Available at: https://www.ijrcenter.org/ihr-reading-room/overview-of-the-human-rights-framework/ [Accessed 13 Apr. 2015]. Jalloh, C. (2010). Universal Jurisdiction, Universal Prescription? A Preliminary Assessment of the African Union Perspective on Universal Jurisdiction.Criminal Law Forum, 21(1), pp.1-65. Koskenniemi, M. (2007). The Fate of Public International Law: Between Technique and Politics.Modern Law Review, 70(1), pp.1-30. McCartin, J. (2012). Beyond Human Rights: Understanding and Addressing the Attack on Public Sector Unions.Human Rights Review, 13(3), pp.399-403. Moyn, S. (2014). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 in the History of Cosmopolitanism.Critical Inquiry, 40(4), pp.365-384. Nlke, S. (1996). International Human Rights in Context. By Henry J. Steiner and Alston Philip. [Oxford: OUP. 1996. xxix + 1245 pp. ISBN 0-19-825427-X. No price given].International Comparative Law Quarterly, 45(04). O'Keefe, R. (2004). Universal Jurisdiction: Clarifying the Basic Concept.Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2(3), pp.735-760. Pegram, T. (n.d.). Global Human Rights Governance and Orchestration: National Human Rights Institutions as Intermediaries.SSRN Journal. Pogge, T. (2003).World poverty and human rights. Cambridge: Polity. Princen, S. and Kerremans, B. (2008). Opportunity Structures in the EU Multi-Level System.West European Politics, 31(6), pp.1129-1146. Reichert, E. (2006). Human Rights: An Examination of Universalism and Cultural Relativism.Journal of Comparative Social Welfare, 22(1), pp.23-36. Schibel, (2003). Integration and the Role of Local Authorities.European Journal of Migration and Law, 5(1), pp.99-106. Shoenberger, A. (2007). Fundamental Rights in the European Union: Towards Higher Law of the Land? A Study of the Status of Fundamental Rights in a Broader Constitutional Setting (review).Human Rights Quarterly, 29(4), pp.1131-1138. Simmons, B. (2006). Protecting Human Rights: A Comparative Study, Advancing Human Rights.PPS, 4(04). Slaughter, J. (2006). Enabling Fictions and Novel Subjects: The Bildungsroman and International Human Rights Law.PMLA, 121(5), pp.1405-1423. Steiner, H., Goodman, R. and Alston, P. (2015).International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals :. Tengns, K. (2012). A human rights-based approach: A gate to development of African women's land rights?.Regions Cohesion, 2(1), pp.99-123. Trachtman, J. (2006). The World Trading System, the International Legal System and Multilevel Choice.European Law Journal, 12(4), pp.469-485. Universal jurisdiction. (2008).Revue internationale de droit pnal, 79(1), p.151. Weston, B. (2006).The Universality of Human Rights in a Multicultural World. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
This paper discusses the rise of the Klu Klux Klan and how it has influenced the establishment of other hate groups in the United States. It also analyzes the reason why these groups find support from certain sectors in the community. The paper gives a review of historical moments when the Klan was powerful and when it was not, and analyzes the reason for this. From the paper: The Ku Klux Klan adopted its name from the Greek word, ?kuklos,? meaning circle, and the English word, ?clan,? meaning tribe. We will write a custom essay sample on The Rise of the Klu Klux Klan or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Klan?s main philosophy was superiority but often, the group used violence and terrorist activity to exercise their sense of superiority over blacks. The Klan strongly opposed any rights that were gained by blacks flowing the Civil War, and harassed blacks that attempted to vote in elections or exercise any other rights. The Ku Klux Klan adopted its name from the Greek word, ?kuklos,? meaning circle, and the English word, ?clan,? meaning tribe. The Klans main philosophy was superiority but often, the group used violence and terrorist activity to exercise their sense of superiority over blacks. The Klan strongly opposed any rights that were gained by blacks flowing the Civil War, and harassed blacks that attempted to vote in elections or exercise any other rights.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
The Health and Pollution Risks of Charcoal Grilling Cooking with grills can be problematic for two reasons. First, both charcoal and wood burn Ã¢â¬Å"dirty,Ã¢â¬ producing not only hydrocarbons but also tiny soot particles that pollute the air and can aggravate heart and lung problems. Secondly, the grilling of meat can form two kinds of potentially carcinogenic compounds in the cooked meat: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). Charcoal Grilling May Pose Cancer Risks According to the American Cancer Society, PAHs form when fat from meat drips onto the charcoal. They then rise with the smoke and can get deposited on the food. They can also form directly on the food as it is charred. The hotter the temperature and the longer the meat cooks, the more HCAs are formed. HCAs can also form on broiled and pan-fried beef, pork, fowl, and fish. In fact, National Cancer Institute researchers have identified 17 different HCAs that result from cooking Ã¢â¬Å"muscle meats,Ã¢â¬ HCAs that may pose human cancer risks. Studies have also shown an increased risk of colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancers associated with high intakes of well done, fried, or barbequed meats. Cooking With Charcoal Grills Adds to Air Pollution According to the Texas Commission on Environmental Air Quality, Texans who like to say that they Ã¢â¬Å"live and breathe barbecueÃ¢â¬ may be doing just that to the detriment of their health. A 2003 study by scientists from Rice University found that microscopic bits of polyunsaturated fatty acids released into the atmosphere from cooking meat on backyard barbecues were helping to pollute the air in Houston. The city at times registers air quality levels that rank it one of the more polluted urban areas in the United State. Emissions from barbecues, however, are certainly dwarfed by those generated by motor vehicles and industry. Both briquettes and lump charcoal create air pollution. The production of lump charcoal, made from charred wood to add flavor, creates other environmental hazards. Their production contributes to deforestation and adds to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Charcoal briquettes do have the benefit of being made partly from sawdust, which is a good use of waste wood. Popular brands, however, may also contain coal dust, starch, sodium nitrate, limestone, and borax. Canada Considers Charcoal Hazardous In Canada, charcoal is now a restricted product under the Hazardous Products Act. According to the Canadian Department of Justice, charcoal briquettes in bags that are advertised, imported to, or sold in Canada must display a label warning of the potential hazards of the product. No such requirements presently exist in the United States. Avoid Health Risks by Using Natural Charcoal Consumers can avoid exposure to these potentially harmful additives by sticking with so-called natural charcoal brands. Look for charcoal made of 100 percent hardwood and containing no coal, oil, limestone, or petroleum products. Third-party certification programs, like the Forest Stewardship Council, can help choose products that are harvested in a sustainable fashion. Edited by Frederic Beaudry.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Using deductive and inductive logic - Essay Example cision maker as the projection of informed consent -- the competent patient makes a Ã¢â¬Å"living will.Ã¢â¬ Also, this paper claims that people have the right to die and that their living will is constant throughout. The decision of the surrogate decision maker is also similar to the decision of the incompetent patient; the idea centers on the scope of time: past and present. The choice from the past is still the choice of the present considering the principle of informed consent. It is debatable to say that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s decision changes over time, especially when that person expressed it in writing. The living will is a written form of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s explicit declaration concerning his or her thoughts of an ideal life or death. The contents of the living will are true and valid for all time when the physically and mentally competent patient makes one. Humans can choose either life or death especially when one is at the verge of utter helplessness. Life as we know it directly springs from humans; and to exercise mercy killing or suicide per se sounds fairly human. A physically incompetent person, for instance, is better off than live a life not far similar to death; he or she is alive via the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s electrical activities but dead via the immobile physical body. A living dead, so to speak, is a horrible human condition. Therefore, the practice of physician-assisted suicide to an incompetent patient is perfectly human. The right to die is an inalienable and human right. Nobody can take oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life but himself or herself. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. It is the prerogative of the individual who owns that body/life on when and how he or she wants to die. Death is sweet when the ideal life appears to be impossible to attain or is not attained. People have the right to die like their right to life. Death is the last option when life seems to be not the kind of life one perceives it; for in death, there is life as well. A terminally-ill patient should
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Second Paper Assignment in English II - Essay Example Ã¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ is narrated through the point of view and perspective of the boy and therefore the reader needs to listen for the voice of the poem behind the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s words. The tone suggests the mood of the narrator and the tone of a poem can be Ã¢â¬Å"serious, playful, exaggerated, understated, poignant, distanced, formal, informal, ironic, blunt or something other than theseÃ¢â¬ (Schakel & Ridl 576). There can be a singular or multiple voices within the poem. The poem Ã¢â¬ËMy PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ depicts a sonÃ¢â¬â¢s memories of his father and the tone of the poem is equally important as that of the voice of the narrator. The complexity of the voice of the narrator of Ã¢â¬Å"My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ provides the poem variety of meanings and offers different readings to the poem. Many readers feel that the poem has a dark tone as the poem depicts Ã¢â¬Å"troubled relationship or dysfunctional homeÃ¢â¬ (Schakel & Ridl 578). Unlike other poems in the chapter the poem addresses not the readers but the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s own father and the Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ in the poem stands for the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s father himself. The very first line of the poem suggests that the father is heavily drunk and his drunkenness is sufficient enough to Ã¢â¬Å"make a small boy dizzyÃ¢â¬ . Similarly, the frown on the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s face in the second stanza and words such as Ã¢â¬Å"batteredÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"beatÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"dirtÃ¢â¬ adds to the dark tone of the poem and the reader can very well experience the desperate voice of the narrator. The simile employed in the third line of the poem-Ã¢â¬Å"I hung on like deathÃ¢â¬ shows feelings of fear and insecurity in the voice of the narrator and the father becomes a formidable figure for the boy. The boy has no other alternativ es than succumb to the violent outbursts of his drunk father and even as an adult the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s voice echoes the pain and suffering his drunken fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions caused him at his early childhood. However, there are many readers who feel that the poem has a joyful tone. As the title of the poem